GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

Mailai England gam pan’a solam gam anai pen gam hi alhang pin gamkai thum in aki khen in ahi. Mesopotamia (tua Iraq gam) ahin, Egypt gam ahin chule Syria-Palestine gam ahiuve.

Hiche gam ho toh kijop mat gam ho chu ahi le Antolia (tua Turkey gam) ahin, Persia (tua Iran gam) ahin, Arabia (tua Saudi Arabia gam) ahin chule Cyprus tuiyin a-kol khum gam ho ahiuve. Hiche akijopmat gam ho hi mihem hung kipat til khanglaiya ana um ahi tauvin, ahin achunga kisei gamkai thum ho bang in, athu pi behseh pon ahi.

  1. Mesopotamia gam:

Malai Mesopotia gam in ahom na mun chu tua Iraq gam, Syria leh Turkey gam sung pha chompi ahin, Tigris leh Euphrates vadung teni lonna gam ahi. Solam Antonia a mol lhang a kon buhbang tampi ho chun hiche vadung te nia tui atamsah jing ahi. Buhbang ho chu Solam Antonia pan, lhanglam a long suh jia, hiche vadung panga um khopi ho jong apalsuh pa’a, Persian Tuikol (Gulf) a long lut ahiye.

Hiche gamsunga khokhun umdan mahet ahahsan, tui let le let lou ding akima het thei pon ahi. Ahin Mesopotamia gamhi jang cham pel ahi jeh le mun nem ahi jeh in, Euphrates vadung a kon in, tui alet jin, gamsung tuiyin achup jin ahi. Hiche tui alet teng leh gampheng mile tamtah sung achup ji ahi. Khat vei veil eh hiche vadung panga um khopi ho asuse jin ahi. Malai Ur khopi jong chu tuiyin asuset khah ahi.

Tigris leh Euphrates vadung te lonsuhna lhang lam gam mun sung hi tui atam jeh leh gam anem jeh in, bonlho na mun ngen ahi. Hiche mun hi mihem masa adeha Arab (mash Arab) te ho a nachen til nao gam ahi. Iraq Sorkal in kumzabi 20 laiya hiche gam a bon alho louna dinga ahinbol chan un, marsh Arab ho bou ana cheng uve.

Tigris leh Euphrates vadung te ni lonsuhna gam hi agam kai sunguva gozuh alhom jeh in, gam ago jin ahi. Hiche vadung te ni um jeha hiche gam sung’a mihem te ho cheng theiya, kholzin le thei ahiuve. Lhang lam gam a tui avei jing jeh in, gam ahin jeh in, sa le nga atam in ahi.

Hiche gama mihem te ahung pung ben, kum 4000 B.C.E vel a kon in, sah lam jep, gam’a akitol tou un, khopi len phachom pi atung doh un ahi. Hiche mun chu Sumer ahi. Kho nung in hiche gam mun sunga Ur, Nippur, Uruk leh Lagah khopi ho ahin tung doh uve.

Sumer gam sahlam jong ahung khang tou tou vin, misim jat ahung pun ben ahi. Hiche gamsunga misim tamna pen chu Babylon gam mun ana hi. Kum 2000 pan 1000 B.C.E sung in, Mesopotamia gamsung’a leng ten phate chan vai anahom um, gam kitup tah khat ana hin ahi.

Tigris vadung chung lam Mosopotamia gam hop nasunga um gamkhat chu Assyria akitin ahi. Hiche gamsunga hin Ashur leh Nineveh khopi len ni ana um e. Hiche kho mite ho hi chondan khang tou lou, kinah leh kitha pha mo sa lou ana hiuve. Khang masa laiya gal satna lama tha hattah ana hiuve. Hijeha themgao Jonah jong Nineveh kho’a ana che nom lou ahi.

Mesopotamia sahlam gam khohun ahahsan, khuhun jong ahasat in, muchi tu hun jong chomcha abou anei un, chule hiche gam hi mol le lhang ngen ([email protected]) ahiye. Kum 1000 B.C.E lai chun achennao gama kon in, lhang lam gam akeh be un, kum 660 B.C.E vel chun lhang lam peha um Egypt gamchan ahop un ahi.
Assyria ten malai Sohlam nai pen (Near East) gam jouse ana lokhum masat pen u ahi. A gam kai agam kai cheh’a mite ho chondan leh kivaipohna chunga tha nei masapen ahiuve. A gamsunga ana cheng mite hon Assyriate ho aho-un, gamsunga boina chom chom ana um jing in, Babylon te leh Persia te demna jong ahin toh un ahi.

2. Egypt gam:

Egypt gam jong hi Nile vadung in achap nou jing ahi. Egypt te chondan leh ngaina ho hi Nile Valley sunga hung khang tou ahiuve. Nile vadung hi sahlam Kenya (Africa gam hop) gama pana hung kipan’a, Mediterranean tuipi sunga lon lut ahi.
Hiche vadung lhunga hin tuigol hat jeh le tui khehsuhna (waterfalls) mun ho aum jeh in, beichan tuilam in, akilam lha thei pon ahi. Arabia gama kona sumkol vei hon joh thei thil chom chom apoh teng u leh hiche Nile vadung kimvel’a leilama lam lha ji ahiuve. Nile vadung a koima alam lha thei poiye.

Lhumlama Sahara tolgo (desert) gam ahi jeh leh lhanglam Nilotic tuigol hat leh tui khehsuh mun ho jeh, solam’a tuipi san (Red Sea) leh Sinai tolgon aum kol jeh in Egypt gam hi gamdang toh kimat beh lou vin, achom beh in aum in ahi. Egypt te thusim’a gamchom mite ho toh aka kivopnao thusim aum vang in, Egypte hin ama ho chondan leh ama ho bou midang sang’a chung nung pen in akigel un, gamchom mi ho mu thadana leh kichatna (xenophobic) anei un ahi.

Nile va dung hi Mesopotamia gama Tigris leh Euphrates vadung te ni bang louvin, ahun leh pha tin in tui aneng jing in ahi. Nile vadung hi aphatin in, leiset pha asem doh doh jeng in, Egypt mite hon amun amun’a tuilam akilai un, muchi akitu jiu vin ahi. Tui lam aki laiuva, tui akikhol uva, aphatina muchi chom chom akituva, neh le chah neng tah a um ahiuve. Mailam khang chun Egypt gam hi “Neh le chah um jing na bom” (breadbasket) tin ana sei jiuve.

“Canaan gamsunga kel lhah jeh a ahahsat behseh phat’in Abram puhsuiya khopem din Egypt gam jonin achesuh-e” (Gen 12:10). “Egypt gamsunga neh le chah thalhinna kum sagi chu akichaitan, Joseph sei bang chun kum sagi sunga kel lhah ding chu akipantai. Gam dang danga kel ahahsa lheh jengin, Egypt gamsung pumpia vang neh le chah aum jinge. Egypt mite jong akel pantauvin, lengpa koma neh ding athumtauve. Hichun Joseph henga acheuva, asei bang banga chon din lengpan miho chu aseipeh-e. Kel akhoh cheh cheh a gam pumpi alosoh phat’in Joseph-in changsal jouse ahongin Egypt mite chu chang akichohsah-e. Muntin a kel ahahsat behseh phat’in, vannoi kolkim vel’a konin mihon Joseph henga chang kichoh din Egypt lam ahinjon jon jenguve” (Gen 41:53-57).

Egypt te hi ana cheng det un, khomuna lam leh tahsan pomdan jong kicheh tah ana nei uve. Mihem te thinunga hinkho ding jong agel khoh uve. Hiche khanglaiya Egypten bou hiti ho chu ana khutsan pan u ahi. Leng te ho jong athi teng, athi long chu tuilhoh mang na lou din dettah leh phate chan songtum len hon aum kol uvin, nikhat teng thina’a kon ahung tho doh ding atahsan uve.

Egypte gamsunga gam agon (dry), kho hun asan, go lhom cha bou aju jin ahi. Kum lhung kei tabang in kho hun asan ahi. Nilhah lam teng leh khohun sat a-ol dom jin ahi. Gam gol laha jan teng adap jin ahi.

3. Syria-Palestine gam

Bible thusim atam jo hi Syria-Palestine gam’a soh ngen ahin, hiche gam umdol akihet chet lou leh, Bible thusim ho hetchet ahahsan ahi. Palestine gam sahlam leh solam gam’a cheng mi ho hi Israel te dia akito mo piu, gal le tol ngen ahiuve. Sahlam gam’a cheng ho hi Phoenician te ahiuve. Hiche Phoenicia gam chu tu’a Lebanon gam ahi tai. Kum 1100 B.C.E a pat in, Persia ten Phoenicia te ahin lo khum kum 540 B.C.E chan in, Mediterranean tuipi a kona sumkol veina jouse a Phoenicia te khutsung’a ana um e.

Phoenicia te khopi Tyre leh Sidon munte ni hi kong kai mun phatah ana hiye. Kongkai mun ahi jeh in, sum kolveina lama akhang tou lheh uvin, aphat chom pi lheh uve. Kum 1600 B.C.E pan 1200 B.C.E kum sung in sahlam Syrian kongkai munpi Ugarit hi, Mediterranean tuipi chunga lamlha’a sumkol vei hon ana phat chom pi lheh uve. Ahin hiche khopi hi tuichunga khosa ho (Sea Peoples) in, ana lo khum un, iyakai Phoenicia te khutnoiya aum doh tan ahi. Phoenicia te hin kong kai mun ni: Tyrel eh Sidon aphat chompi lheh uve.

Syria gam hi Aram gamtin jong aki min von ahi. Hiche gam hi Mesopotamia gam leh Phoenicia gam te ni kikah’a um ahi. Syria gam khopi chu Damascus ahi. Kum 2500 B.C.E lampeha pat’a gancha (sa-ngan, sakol) ho’a khol ana zinleu ahi tai. Agam u hi mol le lhangtampi (mountains) aum in, phaicham (plains) jong aum in, chule gamgo (desert) jong aum e. Syria gammi te ho hi sumkol veina lam leh muchi chivo chinna lama akhang tou un ahi. Damascus khomun hi kum lhung keiyin, kho hun asan, ahin khopi sahlam gamsung vang adap jin ahi.

Syria gam lhanglam ahi leh Canaan gam ahi. Canaan gam husi alang in, khat vei vei leh hu nun jeh in adap lheh jin ahi. Jerusalem khopi sung jong jing kah lamteng husi adap ji lheh e. Tuipi thi (Dead Sea) hi Jerusalem khopi’a kona mile 20 vel agam lan ahi.

Tuipi thi (Dead Sea) hi tuipi chin chung (above sea level) feet 2700 sang Jerusalem’a pat mile 20 velbep ahi vang in, tuipichin noi (below sea level) feet 1300 anem suh in ahi. Tuipi thi leh Jerusalem khopi asan anem hi feet 4000 vel kikah ahi.

Hiche Canaan gam thupitna kit chu lhanglam’a malai Egypt te ho (Africa) gam aum in, sahlam’a malai Mesopotamia aum uve. Hiche gamlen teni kikomtona kah a um ahi. Mediterranean leh Leigo (desert) tenia kona kikom to thei na aum pon ahi. Hiche khang’a mite ho chu Jordan vadung pang’a King’s Highway a ana lam lha jiuve. Canaan gam hi malaiya vannoiya thahat tah gam ni: Mesopotamia leh Egypt te ana kikom matnao gam ahi.

Israel gam hi 8000 square miles alen in ahi.

Reference: Matthews, Victor H. and James C. Moyer. 2005. 2nd Edt. The Old Testament: Text and Context. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc. pp. 31-35

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