Vannoi Gal Thusim

A. Gallen Khatna

1. Gal hung sodohna jeh ho

Capitalist gamlen ho khat leh khat ahung kitet nao hi kumzabi 20 kipattil a kon in ahung khoh cheh cheh in ahi. Hiche gamlen ho khat le khat ahung kitet jehuva Vannoi Gallen Khatna hung soh doh kha ahi. Vannoi Gallen khatna ahung so dohna ajeh ho chu ahi le

(a) Gamkehbe ding kitet jeh,
(b) Nam ngailutna ho jeh
(c) Pan khomna a kitet jeh leh
(d) Galman chah ho kitet jeh ho ahi.

Achunga hung kitah doh thulu ho hi anoiya hin aban ban in akisun in ahi.

(a) Gamkehbe ding kitet jeh

Kumzabi 19 kimvel chen in England gamhi nihcheh ponsil ho, neh le chah thil ho leh mihem manchah khol chom chom ho tamsona pen ana hi.
Kumzabi 19 kichai kon lang in, manchah thilsem na langa England te leh German te ahung kitet pan un ahi. German gamsung ahung kisemtup phat in Germany te khol mangcha-a thilsemna langa hutkhat in ahung khang tou un ahi.

Mihem manchah thil ho hoitah tah, lhou tah tah leh tampi ahin semdoh un ahi. Ahin hiche athilsem ho chu deibang tah in gamchom langa ana johdoh thei pouvin ahi. Ajeh chu England te leh France ten vannoi sumkolveina ho jat chom choma ana lokhum sau ahi. Hijeh chun German te hin Africa gama thilzoh theina lampi ahin holpan uvin ahi.

1890 kum, Prime Minister Caprivi khang chun German ten China gama khopi Shin Hong, Pacific tuipilen sunga Carolinas leh Marianas tukul ho chu ana lokhum un ahi. 1898 kum chun Germany leh Turkey in kinoptona ana bol lhona kon in, Barlin leh Baghdad khopi te ni Rail lampi ahung kisem doh in ahi.

Hitia Middle East (Gamlai-Solam) a German tea hung lutthei uva kon in English tea hung ha lung gim lheh un ahi. Hia kon chun England te leh Germante ho ahung kitet lhona kon in, agam agama kitetna ahung khoh cheh tan in ahi.

France te leh Germany te kitetna hi galthu leh sumkholvei thu jeh ahi. France te hi Asia leh Africa gamsunga gamhop nei tampen ana hiuve. Germany in hiche gamhop sunga gam ahin keh nom uva kon in France leh Germany ahung kitet pan lhon tai.

1870 kum France-Persia te gal jeha ana kipe doh Alsace leh Lorrain gamteni chu Germany khuta kon in France ten ale channom kit un ahi. Chubana France te ho gamkigi Saar gam a um meihol umna mun ho jong chu kholsemna langa manchah ding deinan achu nomkit un ahi. France ten hiche gam le mun ho chu anga u leh Europe gamsunga sumkolveina jouse alo khum thei diu ahi.

Russia te leh Australia te ho kitetna jong ana um in ahi. Russia in Constantinople khopi leh Turkey khutsunga umsa gam kimkhat ho chu chudoh din gal ahin bolun ahi. Russia ten Australia te doitup chu adei him him pouve. Chubana Bolkan mun sunga gamho leh sumkolveina ho chu Russia te leh Australia te ni lokhum din ahung kichu kit lhon tan ahi.

Hitia gamhop kehlet ding kichu na akon in Vannoi Gallen Khatna (WW I) chu ahung soh doh khan ahi.

(b) Nam ngailutna ho jeh

Jat leh nam ngailutna lung thim ho jong hin Vanngoi Gallen khatna ahin sodoh sah ahi. Germany te leh France te ho hin jat le nam ahinha khohsah un ahi. 1870 kuma France ten Germany te gal ana lel jeh un, Alsace leh Lorraine ana pe doh un ahi. France te alung kim thei pouvin, hiche munte ni hi Germany te khutsunga kona, le lahdoh tei ding angaito jing uvin ahi. Germany in jong France te chunga thaneina nei jing theina ding atup jing un ahi.

Europe So-lai lama kon in Slav nam mite hon, nam ngailutna ahin ha nei doh un ahi. Slav mite atam jo hi Australia-Hungary gamkhutnoiya ana chu kha ahiuve. Hijeha chu Slav mite ho hin Australia-Hungary khutnoiya kona kilhadoh theina ding atup un ahi. Hiche tohgon chu Serbia gam hon ahin bolpan un ahi.

Russia te ho hi Slav te ho toh jat le nam kisam kai ahi jeh un Serbia te ho chu ahin pan hu uvin ahi. Chubang chun Slav mite kon khat ho chu Turkey khut noiya aum uve. Slav ho Turkey khutnoiya sochatna ding in Russia ten ahin pan hu uvin ahi. Hijeh chun Serbia leh Russia te apang khom un, langa khata Australia, Hungary leh Turkey te pang khom un, ahung kitoh mo cheh cheh uve.

(c) Pan khomna kitet jeh

Gam kehlet be ding kitet jeh leh nam ngailutna ahung khan jeh a kon in gamkhat leh gamkhat ahung kitoh mo cheh cheh uve. Chutia ahung kito mo cheh cheh uva kona, gal ahung soh khahleh tin, khat leh khat kipan hu to ding in, ama loi, ama loi ahin kisem uvin ahi. 1873 kum chun Germany, Australia leh Russia te hon pankhomna (League of the three Emperor) ahin sem doh un ahi.

Phat sot louvin hiche apan khomnao uva kon in, ahung kikhen thang kit un ahi. 1879 kum in Russia te pang ta louvin, Germany leh Australia gamnin pankhomna (Dual Alliance) ahin semdoh lhon e.

Hiche Germany leh Australia te ni kinoptona chu ahi le, 1. Belkans thua boina ahung so khah leh, Germany ten Australia te apan hu diu, 2. Germany te leh France te ahung boi khah leh, Australia ten Germany te apan hu diu, ti thu ni ahi.

1881 kum chun France ten Africa sahlanga um Tunisia gam chu ana lodoh un ahi. Hiche Tunisia gam chu Italy ten jong adei chat jeh un, France te chunga lung kimmo na ahin nei un, 1882 kum chun Germany leh Australia (Dual Alliance) a chun Italay te alut un ahi.

Hiche gamthum ho pankhomna chu (Triple Alliance) akitin, apan khomna ajeh chu ahile: ijemtia gal ahung so khah leh, gamkhat leh gamkhat kipanhu to diing tia, aguh-a thukimna abol-u ahi. Hiche gamthum hon pankhomna anei uva kon in, lang khata France, Russia leh England ten jong pankhomna (Triple Entente) ahin nei doh un ahi.

1894 chun France te leh Russia ten kinoptona lekha ana bol un ahi. Hiche kinoptona lekha a chun gal le tol thua khat leh khat kihuto ding ti ahi. 1904 kum chun Germany ahung hatdoh phat chun sumkolveilam ahin lo jeh in, England ten France te toh kinoptona lekha (Dual Entete) abol uvin ahi.
1907 chun France chambol themna a kon in, England te leh Russia te kikaha kihoutona ana um e.

Hia kon chun France, Russia leh England te pankhomna ahung umdoha kon in, Europe gamsunga Germany lamkaina leh France lamkaina tin loi tum (2) ahung umdoh tan in ahi.

(d) Galman chah ho kitet jeh

Galman chah langa akitet pen chu England te leh Germany te ahi lhon e. Germany ten England te tetnan 1890 kum chun Germany Tui-lam gal ahin sembe un ahi. 1900 kum lhin chun Germany te Tui-lam galbolna chu aletnin ahung hatdoh un ahi.

England ten jong 1903 kum chun Germany te tetnan Tui-lam galtha ahin sembe kit un, 1905 kum chun Galsatna Tuikong lentah (Dreadnought) ahin sampan un ahi.

Hiche bang chun France leh Germany, Russia leh Germany ho Lei-lam gal jong ahung kitet un ahi. Germany gamsunga galsat a pan lou thei lou thulhuh anei jeh un, Germany te galsat ding ahung tam doh un ahi. Hijeh chun France leh Russ ten jong Germany te toh kitetnan galsatna lam ahin ha bol un, khutchoi thah thah ahin sem doh un ahi.

Europe gamsunga Tui-lam galsat, Lei-lam galsat na dia ahung kiha gon cheh cheh bang un, America leh Japan gam te hon jong galsatna lama kigonna ahin ha bol cheh un ahi.

Chutia gamlen ho khat leh khat gal bolna dia, hem leh thal chule galsatna dinga manchah thah thah ahin boluva, thahatna dinga ahung kiha gon cheh cheh uva kon in, kitomona ani anin ahung sang cheh cheh tan ahi.

(2) Vannoi Gallen Khat Hungkipatna

Vannoi Gallen khatna hi June 28, 1914 kuma Bosnia gam khopi lenpen Sarajevo kho a, Australia leng Francis Ferdinand leh ajinu kitha lih jeha kona hung kipan doh ahi. Australia lengpa that chu Serbia galguh bol ho laha Bosnian pasal khat ahi. Hiche pa chun Bosnia leh Serbia gopkhom leh pankhom chu adei ahi. Hiche kitha thua pansan, Australia ten Serbia ho suhmang ding in agong un ahi. Australia ten Germany te thukimna a kon in, Serbia te ho gahtah in gihna thu athot un ahi.

Hiche galgihna sunga thu ho: Serbia te chamlhatna atoh khat ding, Russia ten jong athukim piu ti jeh in, Serbia ten jong Australia te galbol dou ding in, nasatah in kigontohna anei un ahi. Hiche thupeh leh gihna chu Serbia ten akhutsan thei lou-u thu Australia te alethot kit un ahi. Hia kon chun Australia ten Serbia te gal bolkhum ding in, July 28, 1914 ni chun thuphon abolun ahi.

Australia leh Serbia te ni kiboina thua, Germany ten Australia te apan hu uvin, Russia leh France ten Serbia tea pan hu lhon e. Chutia Germany leh Australia pang khom, lang khata France, English leh Russia te pang khom a hung kidou pan ahiuve. Gamchan vo hoppeh ding tia jolna a kon in Italy te jong English leh France te langa 1915 kum chun ahung pan in ahi.

Vannoi Gallen khatna a hin gamlen ho keu hi louvin, gamneo ho jong ahung pang uve. France, English, Russia langa Japan te ho jong ahung pang un, Germany leh Australia langa Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria gam ho ahung pang uve.

France, English, Russia te ho pankhomna chu “Allied Powers” tin akimin von, Germany, Australia, Hungary ho pankhomna chu “Central Powers” tin aki min vo e. Germany ten November 11, 1918 nia gal-ngahna lekha ahin boluva kona Vannoi Gallen khatna chu anah nah a ana kichai ahi.

(3) Gallen Khatna jeha thilsoh ho

(a) Paris Chamnathua Kikhopna

Vannoi Gallen khatna kichai thua kichamna lekha ho boldin gam chom choma kon in lamkai thalheng ho January 18, 1919 nin France gam Paris khopi muna kikhopna abol un ahi. Hiche kikhopna a chun France, England, Italy, America gam ho leh ama ho langa pang gam ho, agoma gam (32) a kona palai hung kikhom ahiuve.

Gal lel gam ho leh alang alanga pang lou gam ho chu kikhopna a, apan sah pouve. Russia gam jong chu Socialist douna-a gal bola hi jeh un, kikhopna a, pang ding in atem pouve. Hiche kikhopna hi gal kisatto aloi nia (Allied Powers leh Central Powers) a palai ho kikhopna ahi pon, gal jou (Allied Powers) gam ho bou kikhopna ahi.

Galjou (Allied Powers) ho bou kikhopna ahi jeh in, kihoulimna leh thulhuh kibol ho hi ama ho khat cheh phatchomna ding ngen ahi. Kikhop masanga America President Wilson in Chamnathu dan (14) hi “chamdel” ding tin mite hon ana kinep piuve. Adeh in gal lel Germany leh gam chom chom hon Wilson sei dan (14) hi ana kiha nep pi lheh uve. Ahin gamgi kikhen ding thu, gamsung thudol, kivaipoh thudol-a boina chom chom ho thua “Kiloikhomna Len” khat sem ding ti thu athu kim u tai lou, Wilson sem dan dang ho chu France leh English ten ajui pouve.

Kikhopna-a, gam 32 a kon palai ho ahung kikhop vang uvin, boina thu ho asei naova gamlen li a lamkai ho: France Prime Minister Clemenceau, England Prime Minister Lloyd George, Italy Prime Minister Orlando leh American President Wilson hon bou thulhuh abol jiu ahi.

Hiche gamlen li (France, England, Italy leh America) lamkai hon adei bang tahuva thulhuh abol nung uva, gal lel gam ho chu nopna lekha chunga thukimna soi akai sah u ahi. Hiche nopna lekha kibol ho laha Germany ho toh kibol lekha (Treaty of Versailles) chu athupi pen in ahi.

(b) Treaty of Versailles

Paris kikhopna a ki thukimna thu ho (khut san nai lou) chu June 28, 1919 ni chun France gam Versailles Inpi muna Germany te leh Allies Powers hon soikaina anei uve. Hiche soikaina chu “Versailles Kinoptona” tin amin vo uve. Chubana gallel gam chom chom ho, Turkey, Australia, Hungary, Bulgaria, hon jong chamna thua kinoptona soi abol uve.

Hiche kinoptona ho laha Germany te toh kibol Versailles kinoptona (Treaty of Versailles) hi athupi pen in ahi. Versailles kinoptona a chun gamgichin ho hopkhenna, gal manchah ho kemlhah sahna, gal lel man pehna, chule tohgon chom chom ho ajao ve.

Germany ten France anal ah peh u Alsace leh Lorriane mun ho France te ale-peh un ahi. Germany ten Belgium te ana lah peh u, Eupen leh Malmedy gam ho chu Belgium te ale peh un ahi. France leh Germany kikah Rhine vadung solam a panmun sem Germany sepai leh ngamun jouse atol doh diu ti ahi. Germany te gam Saar mun thua Vannoi Gamkiloikhom hon vai homna anei ding, chule meihol bolna leh leinoi thilgun konna ho chu France ten abol ding ti ahi.

Schleswig leh Holstein mun ho chu Germany ten Denmark ho ape un ahi. Germany, Australia, Hungary, leh Russia ten ana lahdoh u, Poland gam ho chu agom khom un, Poland gamthah asem doh un ahi. Poland gam tuipi lama potdoh thei na dingin, Germany gam Persia lhumlam gam pal a, Boltist vadunglen pan a um Danzig kho chan chu Poland te achang un ahi.

Hiche gam chu Polih Corridor tin amin vo uve. Germany ten agam lahdoh se seu alha so kit tauvin ahi. Hiche gam ho chu England, France, Japan, New Zealand leh Australia ho akikhom uvin ahi. Hia kon chun Germany te chu agam lahdoh se-seu pum in gam le lei 25000 sq/miles apehdoh un ahi.

Ban jop ding—–

Hiche thusim hi Grade 9 World Histor bu sunga Burmese paova kona kile doh ahi. Draft ahi na laiye.

August 29, 2013.

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